Ground Penetrating Radar
- Stratigraphic mapping including depth to bedrock
- Locating karst features, sinkholes, voids or cave systems
- Depth to water table
- Archaeology (location of graves and artifacts)
- Location of underground infrastructure, including UST's and utilities
- Assessment of internal condition and defects of engineered structures
- Assessment of road and rail infrastructure, including asphalt and ballast condition
- Slab thickness, reinforcement placement and void detection
Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a non-destructive and non-invasive geophysical technique for rapidly imaging the shallow subsurface and producing high-resolution colour sections in real time. The method works by transmitting electromagnetic energy into the material being tested (most usual the ground). Typically 100,000 impulses per second are transmitted which are of very short duration and contain a wide spectrum of frequencies.
The transmitted electromagnetic energy propagates through the subsurface as a function of the subsurface material's electrical properties, which are in turn dependent on its physical and chemical properties. Reflection of radar energy occurs at boundaries between differing stratigraphic layers or inclusions which have contrasting electrical properties. Conversely, no reflections occur from a homogenous material where there are no internal reflectors. The reflections are detected by the receiving antenna placed adjacent to the transmitter. The depth to the target is proportional to the time (in nanoseconds) taken for the signal to travel from the transmitting antenna at the surface to the target and back to the receiver.
Data Analysis & Presentation
A radar-gram profile is built up of continuous scans along a selected line path, see below. These are 2D cross-sections of the subsurface showing variations in reflection amplitude as a colour scale. The recorded reflections can be analysed in terms of shape, phase, travel time and signal amplitude to provide information about a target's size, depth and orientation in relation to the material around it.
The depth of investigation achievable with the GPR method is largely a function of the antenna frequency used. Lower frequencies in the order of 100 MHz are typically used for geological mapping to a maximum depth of approximately 20 m, whilst high frequencies in the order of 1 GHz are used for high resolution investigations of structures including building, bridges and tunnels.